The final match of the Round of 16 matches up 1998 champion France against the World Cup's most notable underachiever in Spain.
However, the Spanish are showing signs that they want to make a run in this year's Cup. The Spanish won all three of their group matches, whalloping quarterfinalist Ukraine 4-0, spotting Tunisia a goal and then winning 3-1, and then waltzing past Saudi Arabia 1-0.
France did not control its own destiny in order to make it on to the next round. France played a scoreless draw with the Swiss and a 1-1 tie with Korea. France needed to beat Togo by two goals and hope that the Korea-Switzerland match had a winner. And that's what happened as France beat Togo 2-0 and the Swiss beat Korea 2-0.
These two European powers have met each other 27 times. Spain has won 11 times and France has won 10 times with 6 draws.
As for the history of these two countries in matters outside the pitch, pick up a book on European history. You'll find them mentioned soon enough. Check the parts about Napoleon for the good parts.
In recent times, Spanish coach Luis Aragones and French player Thierry Henry have had a history. Aragones's statement about Henry makes him extremely unlikely to ever coach on these shores.